Formulated by physicians from
Harvard, Cornell, MIT and Bastyr

Bone Support

Don’t be fooled by other bone health products that contain vitamin K. Osteo-K® and Osteo-K Minis deliver the amount of MK4® used in clinical trials and shown to stop and reverse bone loss, grow stronger bones and reduce fractures. MK4 (45 mg/day) has been studied in more than 25 clinical trials with over 7,000 people and shown to decrease bone fractures up to 87%. Combined with calcium and vitamin D, Osteo-K and Osteo-K Minis are your complete bone health dietary supplements.

Special Report:  Osteoporosis: Beyond Bone Mineral Density

Which Osteo-K is Right for You?

How much calcium has your doctor recommended?

If you doctor recommended you take 1,000 mg of calcium as a dietary supplement, then you’ll want the original Osteo-K formula.

If less was recommended, or you believe that less calcium as a dietary supplement is better, then Osteo-K Minis is what you’ll want.

Do you eat dairy?

The US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for calcium is 1,200 mg per day. That’s from all sources—diet plus dietary supplements. The average American consumes approximately 800 mg per day of calcium in their diet. Thus, if you eat an average diet, which typically includes dairy, then Osteo-K Minis is right for you. Osteo-K Minis delivers 400 mg of highly absorbable calcium per day. A diet that provides 800 mg of calcium per day, plus the 400 mg that’s in Osteo-K Minis, puts you in the recommended range of 1,200 calcium per day.

Do you have difficulty swallowing larger capsules?

Some people simply can’t swallow larger capsules. With the original Osteo-K formula, people can open the capsules and mix the nutrients into room temperature or colder food, such as yogurt or cottage cheese, and consume them that way. This works well for many people.

However, if you feel less calcium is enough for you, and you can swallow the smaller capsules in Osteo-K Minis, then Osteo-K Minis is the product for you.

How many capsules each day can you regularly take?

Compliance, which in medicine is the ability for patients to follow the recommendations being made to them, is a serious issue. In NBI’s customer survey, it found that 78% of people taking Osteo-K took it every day; however, 22% of customers reported that they took it six days or less per week. The reasons varied as to why people did not take them every day, but a few people reported that they would take it more frequently if there were fewer capsules to take each day. If you want fewer capsules to take each day, while still getting the same, powerful bone-building benefits as in the original Osteo-K formula, then Osteo-K Minis is the product for you.

But if you don’t mind taking more capsules (6 per day in Osteo-K versus 4 per day in Osteo-K Minis), doesn’t bother you and you like the idea of getting more calcium in your dietary supplement, then the original Osteo-K formula is for you.

MK4 Osteoporosis Research

The benefits of MK4 for bone health in people with osteoporosis have been studied for almost two decades and published in dozens of medical journals. There are over 25 clinical trials with more than 7,000 people. The research consistently shows that MK4 improves bone health laboratory markers, bone mineral density, reduces bone fractures.

Customers Share Their Osteo-K Stories

MK4 vs MK7 for Bone Health

There are two forms of vitamin K2 commercially available in dietary supplements: MK4 and MK7. While they’re both naturally found in food, your body can create its own MK4. This is not the case for MK7. We can’t make MK7, which is instead only created by bacterial fermentation. Natural MK4 used in dietary supplements is produced from a plant starting material.

MK7 has a longer half-life than MK4 and both can promote healthy bone laboratory markers and bone density. MK7, however, has never been shown in clinical trials to reduce fractures. Only MK4 has demonstrated the ability to reduce bone fractures in clinical trials.

However, only MK4 has demonstrated the ability to decrease fractures, the most relevant end point in randomized, controlled clinical trials. Additionally, people with an allergy to soy can react to MK7, since it is produced from soy fermentation. People with celiac disease and gluten intolerance frequently have allergies to other foods, such as soy. MK4 is hypoallergenic.

Why Osteo-K Shatters the Competition

*Footnotes

**MK7 and Vitamin K1. Bone health supplements that use MK7 are using an ingredient that has never been shown in any clinical trial to reduce fractures. Additionally while MK4 is naturally produced in the body, MK7 is not. Nonetheless, this inferior form of vitamin K2 is what most manufacturers put in their calcium supplements when they contain vitamin K2.

Vitamin K1 is naturally found in green leafy vegetables. Research confirms that a diet high in green leafy vegetables may decrease fractures, but there are no clinical trials showing a fracture a reduction from taking a calcium supplement containing vitamin K1.

†Oxide minerals. The “oxide” form of minerals, such as magnesium, is an inferior form of mineral. The body can only absorb 2% of the magnesium when it’s in the oxide form. Even though it says you’re getting 500 mg magnesium, your body can only absorb about 10 mg. The rest passes right through you and out your stool.

‡Fracture Reduction. Most dietary supplements contain ingredients that have never been shown to decrease fractures and inferior forms of ingredients that the body cannot absorb and use. Calcium and vitamin D have only been shown to decrease fractures by about 16%. However, research shows that when MK4 is added to an osteoporosis supplement it can decrease fractures by up to 87%. Other ingredients, such as MK7, magnesium and boron in osteoporosis supplements have never been shown to reduce fractures in human clinical trials.

References:

Vitamin K and the Prevention of Fractures: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, by Cockayne S, Adamson J, et. al.. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256-1261.[Article]

Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation Prevents Osteoporotic Fractures in Elderly Community Dwelling Residents: A Pragmatic Population-Based 3-Year Intervention Study, by Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, et. al. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2004;19(3):370-378. [Article]

Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer’s disease, by Sato Y, Kanoko T, et. al. Bone. 2005;36(1):61-68. [Article]

Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis, by Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, et. al. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2000;15(3):515-522. [Article]

Osteo-K Frequently Asked Questions

General Osteo-K Questions

Q: Does Osteo-K contain MK4?

Yes, plus other important nutrients for bone health. Each six capsules of Osteo-K contain 45 mg of MK4, a form of vitamin K2, 1000 mg calcium (citrate) and 2000 units Vitamin D3.

Q: Osteo-K seems to be expensive, why is that?

Osteo-K is more expensive than other calcium supplements because the raw material, MK4, is very costly. However, since taking Osteo-K means you won’t have to separate buy bottles of vitamin K, calcium, vitamin D and the other nutrients in Osteo-K, the cost of Osteo-K is actually less than buying each of these separately. Additionally, we pay extra to have our products tested for purity and potency and to have our products manufactured at a FDA-registered, GMP-certified manufacturing facility. These NBI manufacturing standards ensure our products exceed the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) as defined by the US FDA.

Q: Who created Osteo-K?

Osteo-K, a bone support dietary supplement, was created by physicians from Harvard, Cornell, MIT and Bastyr. After years of Dr. Steve Pieczenik’s wife taking Fosamax without any benefit, and with painful side effects, he and his partner, Dr. John Neustadt began researching natural ways women and men can promote their bone health.

Q: How is Osteo-K different from other bone support formulas?

Osteo-K is the only osteoporosis supplement that contains the amount (45 mg) and form of vitamin K (MK4) plus calcium and vitamin D shown in clinical trials to prevent fractures.

Q: Is Osteo-K gluten free?

Yes. All of our NBI dietary supplements are completely gluten free.

Q: Are the Osteo-K capsules vegetarian?

Yes. All our capsules are 100% vegetarian cellulose capsules.

Q: Why doesn’t Osteo-K contain strontium?

For several reasons. First, clinical trials show that MK4 decreases fractures better than strontium–81% for MK4 versus 44% for strontium. Second, strontium decreases calcium absorption, and calcium is an important nutrient. Third the form of strontium used in all the clinical trials is strontium ranelate. Currently strontium ranelate is only available in Europe. Strontium in the US is available as strontium citrate, which has never been studied and shown to decrease fractures. Finally, strontium interferes with bone density scans and provides false results. The question of strontium and osteoporosis is a good one, but the research at this time supports MK4 over strontium.

Who should take Osteo-K?

Q: Should I take Osteo-K?

If you are concerned about your bone health, and are not taking Coumadin (warfarin), you should take Osteo-K. According to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) risk factors for bone loss and osteoporosis include history of prior fractures, family history of osteoporosis, early menopause (younger than 45 years), dementia, poor nutrition, smoking, alcoholism, impaired eyesight, weight less than 120 pounds, history of falls, sedentary lifestyle, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder), eating disorders, gastrectomy, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease (gluten intolerance), stroke, lactose intolerance, and medications such as antacids (Prilosec, Prevacid, Nexium, Protonix, Aciphex, Zantact), corticosteroids (prednisone, methylprednisone, dexamethasone) and tamoxifen. Additionally, cadmium toxicity can also increase the risk for osteoporosis.

Q: Can everyone take Osteo-K?

No. People taking warfarin (Coumadin) cannot take Osteo-K because the vitamin K in the dietary supplement will interfere with the warfarin.

Osteo-K, Calcium and Your Other Supplements

Q: Does Osteo-K interact with any other dietary supplements?

No. However, if you are taking different dietary supplements that all contain minerals, there is always a risk of taking too many minerals at the same time. This can cause a watery diarrhea, technically called osmotic diarrhea. Simply taking Osteo-K away from other dietary supplements can correct this situation.

Q: Does Osteo-K replace my calcium supplement?

Yes. Because Osteo-K combines all essential nutrients into one formula it’s the only dietary supplement you need for bone health. You don’t need to buy extra calcium unless advised to do so by your healthcare provider.

Q: Do I need to take extra vitamin D is I’m taking Osteo-K?

Only if your doctor has prescribed higher amounts of vitamin D than what is in Osteo-K. Each serving (six capsules) of Osteo-K contains 2,000 units of vitamin D3.

Osteo-K and Drug Interactions

Q: Will the MK4 in Osteo-K interact with heparin?

No. MK4 does not interact with heparin.

Q: If I’m taking aspirin, can I still take Osteo-K?

Yes. None of the ingredients in Osteo-K, including MK4, interfere with the effects of aspirin.

Q: If I’m taking warfarin (coumadin), can I still take Osteo-K?

No. Vitamin K, which is in Osteo-K, will interfere with warfarin (coumadin). Warfarin works to prevent blood clots by blocking how the body uses vitamin K to form blood clots. Taking vitamin K while taking warfarin overrides this mechanism and makes warfarin less effective. People taking warfarin absolutely cannot take Osteo-K.

Q: Can I take Osteo-K with my osteoporosis medication?

Yes. The ingredients in Osteo-K are safe to take with osteoporosis medications. In fact, one clinical trial showed taking MK4 with Fosamax improved the benefits of the medication.

MK4, Bone Health and Fractures

Q: Does Osteo-K contain MK4?

Yes. Osteo-K is the only osteoporosis supplement on the market that contains the amount of MK4 used in clinical trials plus calcium and vitamin D3.

Q: What is MK4 and how does it work?

MK4 is a form of vitamin K2 and the principle ingredient in Osteo-K. MK4 works by promoting bone health through the formation of bone collagen, the connective tissue in bone. Bone is a complex tissue comprised of minerals such as calcium and connective tissue (collagen). The minerals give bone its hardness and the collagen gives bone its flexibility.

Q: Has MK4 been shown to promote and maintain healthy bones?

Yes. In clinical trials MK4 has been shown to be an important nutrient for building bone. It can build bones and decrease the risk of vertebral fracture by 60%, hip fracture by 71% and all nonvertebral fractures by 81%. In fact, 45 mg/day of MK4 has been an approved treatment for osteoporosis in Japan since 1995.

In comparison, Fosamax only decreases vertebral fracture risk by about 45 percent, Actonel by about 50 percent and Boniva by 52 percent.

Q: Is MK4 a drug?

Not in the United States. MK4 has been an approved treatment for osteoporosis in Japan since 1995. However, in the United States MK4 is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a dietary supplement. It has not been approved by the FDA prevent osteoporosis or as an osteoporosis treatment.

Q: Is MK4 a fracture treatment?

No. MK4 is a bone support nutrient. It is not used in fracture treatment; however, research concludes that it may be helpful in speeding the recovery from fractures and preventing fractures.

Q: Will 45 mg of MK4 increase my risk of blood clots?

Vitamin K is important for healthy blood clotting. However, taking extra vitamin K does not increase your risk. Studies have shown that taking in excess of even 135 mg/day of MK4 does not increase blood clot risk. That’s because once the body has enough vitamin K for normal clotting, it cannot use more. NOTE: If you are taking warfarin (Coumadin) taking MK4 will increase your risk for blood clots because MK4 counteracts this medication.

Q: How does MK4 compare with MK7?

MK4 and MK7 are forms of vitamin K2. However, only MK4 has been shown in clinical trials to decrease fractures.

Q: How does MK4 compare with strontium?

MK4 clinical trials compared to strontium clinical trials showed that MK4 decreased fractures nearly twice much as strontium.

Q: Are there any side effects of MK4?

Studies have shown that like all dietary supplements, MK4 in a very small percentage of people can cause headaches and gas and bloating, which stop when you stop the dietary supplement.

Q: Will my bone density improve if I take MK4?

Studies show that MK4 can reduce the rate of bone loss and in some cases improve bone mineral density. For example, significant improvements in bone mineral density were noted in clinical trials that compared people taking 45 mg per day of MK4 with calcium and vitamin D3 to people not taking MK4. But again, bone density only predicts 44% of elderly (65 years or older) women and 21% of elderly men who will get a fracture. Clinical trials show that taking 45 mg daily of MK4 plus calcium and Vitamin D decreases fracture risk independent of of bone mineral density.

About Osteoporosis

Q: What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a dangerous condition of bone loss. It occurs most commonly in post-menopausal women, but men also get osteoporosis.

Q: Can osteoporosis kill me?

Yes. About 20% of people with osteoporosis who suffer a hip fracture die within one year, and of those who survive, 20% end up in a nursing home.

Q: At what age do we start losing bone?

Men and women are actively building bones into their early 30’s. After that they lose bone at 0.5% to 2% per year. In women, an accelerated rate of bone loss occurs during menopause and for about 10 years thereafter.

Q: How many people have osteoporosis?

In the United States alone, approximately 54 million women and men have osteoporosis or low bone mass, increasing their risk of osteoporosis. Globally, osteoporosis affects approximately 200 million people.

Q: Can men get osteoporosis?

Yes. Men have historically been ignored in osteoporosis health screening. However, men, like women, should be screened for osteoporosis.

Q: Is osteoporosis or osteopenia more dangerous?

Osteopenia. The majority of fractures actually occur in people with osteopenia.

Q: Does exercise prevent fractures?

Yes. Exercise can increase muscle mass, strength, and balance, thereby decreasing the risk for falling and suffering an osteoporotic fracture. Muscle strengthening and balance exercises (eg, Chi Gong, Tai Chi) have been shown to decrease risk for fall and fall-related injuries by 75% among women aged seventy-five years and older.

Q: How is osteoporosis treated?

In addition to recommending exercise, osteoporosis treatments include a calcium supplement, vitamin D and usually one of several different medications.

Bone Density Scans and Fracture Risk

Q: What is a bone density scan?

It’s a special test, called dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). It quantifies the amount of minerals in bone. This test tells people their bone mineral density (BMD).

Q: Does bone mineral density (BMD) predict fracture risk?

Not very well. BMD only predicts 44% of elderly (65 years or older) women and 21% of elderly men who will get a fracture.

Q: Should I get a bone density test?

In 2007 the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published screening guidelines. They recommend all postmenopausal women get a bone density test if: (1) they get a fracture, or (2) are 65 years or older, or (3) are younger than 65 years with one or more risk factors.

Q: How can I know my risk factors for fracture?

Many variables contribute to fracture risk. Having a previous fracture is a strong indicator of risk. Some medications also increase risk. People who don’t exercise have a greater chance of falling and breaking a bone than those who exercise. Your healthcare provider may be able to help you better understand your risk.

Q: Where on the body is the BMD test taken?

Typically the lumbar spine and hip, or the wrist and heel, are tested. However, only the lumbar spine and hip are considered the “gold standard.” When BMD tests are run in hospitals they test the lumbar spine and hip.

Are Medications Causing Your Osteoporosis?

Article at-a-glance: 70% of Americans take at least one prescription, 50% take two and 20% are on five medications. Drugs cause osteoporosis and can double your risk of bone fracture. Prescriptions are often overlooked as the cause of osteoporosis in up to 30% of...

6 Steps to Reduce Fracture Risk

Article at-a-glance: Fracture a hip with osteoporosis and you have a 20-40% chance of dying in a year. The bone density myth that has people focusing too much on their T-score. Modifiable risk factors are in your control. Change them and change your risk. By Dr. John...

Vitamin K and Fractures

Article at-a-glance: Bone fracture is the most painful and dangerous risk for people with osteoporosis. MK4 and MK7 are both forms of natural vitamin K2. MK4 stops and reverse bone loss, grows stronger bones and reduces fractures up to 87%. MK7 has never been shown to...

Research Citations for Ingredients in Osteo-K

MK4 and Bone Mineral Density
  1. Adams J, Pepping J. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(15):1574-1581.
  2. Hara K, Kobayashi M, Akiyama Y. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) inhibits bone loss induced by prednisolone partly through enhancement of bone formation in rats. Bone. Nov 2002;31(5):575-581.
  3. Iketani T, Kiriike N, B. Stein M, et al. Effect of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) treatment on bone loss in patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research. 2003;117(3):259-269.
  4. Inoue T, Sugiyama T, Matsubara T, et al. Inverse correlation between the changes of lumbar bone mineral density and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin after vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment in children treated with glucocorticoid and alfacalcidol. Endocr J 2001;48:11-18.
  5. Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-164.
  6. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Combined treatment with vitamin K2 and bisphosphonate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Yonsei Med J 2003;44:751-756.
  7. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci. 2000;5(6):546-551.
  8. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Yeh JK. Effect of vitamin K2 and growth hormone on the long bones in hypophysectomized young rats: a bone histomorphometry study. J Bone Miner Metab. 2007;25(1):46-53.
  9. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K(2) supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. Feb 8 2007.
  10. Koshihara Y, Hoshi K, Okawara R, Ishibashi H, Yamamoto S. Vitamin K stimulates osteoblastogenesis and inhibits osteoclastogenesis in human bone marrow cell culture. J Endocrinol. 2003;176(3):339-348.
  11. Nishiguchi S, Shimoi S, Kurooka H, et al. Randomized pilot trial of vitamin K2 for bone loss in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2001;35:543-545.
  12. Plaza SM, Lamson DW. Vitamin K2 in bone metabolism and osteoporosis. Altern Med Rev. Mar 2005;10(1):24-35.
  13. Purwosunu Y, Rachman IA, Reksoprodjo S, Sekizawa A. Vitamin K2 treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2006;32(2):230-234.
  14. Sasaki N, Kusano E, Takahashi H, et al. Vitamin K2 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss partly by preventing the reduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(1):41-47.
  15. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kaji M, et al. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson’s disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31:114-118.
  16. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kaji M, et al. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson’s disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31:114-118.
  17. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K. Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone. Sep 1998;23(3):291-296.
  18. Shiomi S, Nishiguchi S, Kubo S, et al. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) for bone loss in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2002;97(4):978-981.
  19. Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2000;15(3):515-522.
  20. Somekawa Y, Chigughi M, Harada M, Ishibashi T. Use of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the prevention of bone loss induced by leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2700-2704.
  21. Sugiyama T, Tanaka H, Kawai S. Clinical vignette. Vitamin K plus vitamin D treatment of bone problems in a child with skeletal unloading. J Bone Miner Res 1999;14:1466-1467.
  22. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002;41(3):211-221.
  23. Vermeer C, Jie KS, Knapen MH. Role of vitamin K in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1995;15:1-22
  24. Yonemura K, Fukasawa H, Fujigaki Y, Hishida A. Protective effect of vitamins K2 and D3 on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;43:53-60.
  25. Yonemura K, Kimura M, Miyaji T, Hishida A. Short-term effect of vitamin K administration on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66:123-128.
MK4 Cardiovascular Health Citations
  1. Adams J, Pepping J. Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(15):1574-1581.
  2. Pizzorno L, Pizzorno J. Vitamin K: Beyond coagulation to uses in bone, vascular and anti-cancer metabolism. Integr Med. 2008;7(2):24-30.
  3. Ronden JE, Groenen-van Dooren MMCL, Hornstra G, Vermeer C. Modulation of arterial thrombosis tendency in rats by vitamin K and its side chains. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132(1):61-67.
  4. Schurgers LJ, Dissel PE, Spronk HM, et al. Role of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular calcification. Z Kardiol. 2001;90 Suppl 3:57-63.
  5. Spronk HMH, Soute BAM, Schurgers LJ, Thijssen HHW, De Mey JGR, Vermeer C. Tissue-Specific Utilization of Menaquinone-4 Results in the Prevention of Arterial Calcification in Warfarin-Treated Rats. Journal of Vascular Research. 11 2003;40(6):531-537.
  6. Wallin R, Schurgers L, Wajih N. Effects of the blood coagulation vitamin K as an inhibitor of arterial calcification. Thrombosis Research. 2008;122(3):411-417.
MK4 for People with Alzheimer Disease
  1. Sato Y, Kanoko T, Satoh K, Iwamoto J. Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer’s disease. Bone. 2005;36(1):61-68.
MK4 for People with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
  1. Nishiguchi S, Shimoi S, Kurooka H, et al. Randomized pilot trial of vitamin K2 for bone loss in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol 2001;35:543-545.
MK4 for People with Anorexia Nervosa
  1. Iketani T, Kiriike N, B. Stein M, et al. Effect of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) treatment on bone loss in patients with anorexia nervosa. Psychiatry Research. 2003;117(3):259-269.
MK4 for People on Leuprolide
  1. Somekawa Y, Chigughi M, Harada M, Ishibashi T. Use of vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the prevention of bone loss induced by leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2700-2704.
MK4 for People with Cirrhosis of the Liver
  1. Shiomi S, Nishiguchi S, Kubo S, et al. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) for bone loss in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2002;97(4):978-981.
MK4 and Fracture Reduction
  1. Booth SL, Tucker KL, Chen H, et al. Dietary vitamin K intakes are associated with hip fracture but not with bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(5):1201-1208.
  2. Cockayne S, Adamson J, Lanham-New S, Shearer MJ, Gilbody S, Torgerson DJ. Vitamin K and the Prevention of Fractures: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(12):1256-1261.
  3. Kaneki M, Hosoi T, Ouchi Y, Orimo H. Pleiotropic actions of vitamin K: protector of bone health and beyond? Nutrition. 2006;22(7-8):845-852.
  4. Sato Y, Kanoko T, Satoh K, Iwamoto J. Menatetrenone and vitamin D2 with calcium supplements prevent nonvertebral fracture in elderly women with Alzheimer’s disease. Bone. 2005;36(1):61-68.
  5. Shiraki M, Shiraki Y, Aoki C, Miura M. Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) Effectively Prevents Fractures and Sustains Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2000;15(3):515-522.
MK4 for Postmenopausal Women
  1. Iwamoto I, Kosha S, Noguchi S, et al. A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women a comparative study with vitamin D3 and estrogen-progestin therapy. Maturitas 1999;31:161-164.
  2. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Combined treatment with vitamin K2 and bisphosphonate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Yonsei Med J 2003;44:751-756.
  3. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Ichimura S. Effect of combined administration of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 on bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Orthop Sci. 2000;5(6):546-551.
  4. Knapen MH, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K(2) supplementation improves hip bone geometry and bone strength indices in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. Feb 8 2007.
  5. Purwosunu Y, Rachman IA, Reksoprodjo S, Sekizawa A. Vitamin K2 treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Indonesia. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. 2006;32(2):230-234.
  6. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002;41(3):211-221.
MK4 Safety Citations
  1. Asakura H, Myou S, Ontachi Y, et al. Vitamin K administration to elderly patients with osteoporosis induces no hemostatic activation, even in those with suspected vitamin K deficiency. Osteoporos Int. Dec 2001;12(12):996-1000.
  2. Green PH, Jabri B. Coeliac disease. Lancet. 2003;362(9381):383-391.
  3. Ronden JE, Groenen-van Dooren MMCL, Hornstra G, Vermeer C. Modulation of arterial thrombosis tendency in rats by vitamin K and its side chains. Atherosclerosis. 1997;132(1):61-67.
  4. Ushiroyama T, Ikeda A, Ueki M. Effect of continuous combined therapy with vitamin K2 and vitamin D3 on bone mineral density and coagulofibrinolysis function in postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2002;41(3):211-221.
MK4 for People with Parkinson Disease
  1. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kaji M, et al. Amelioration of osteoporosis by menatetrenone in elderly female Parkinson’s disease patients with vitamin D deficiency. Bone 2002;31:114-118.
MK4 for People Taking Prednisone
  1. Hara K, Kobayashi M, Akiyama Y. Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) inhibits bone loss induced by prednisolone partly through enhancement of bone formation in rats. Bone. Nov 2002;31(5):575-581.
  2. Inoue T, Sugiyama T, Matsubara T, et al. Inverse correlation between the changes of lumbar bone mineral density and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin after vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) treatment in children treated with glucocorticoid and alfacalcidol. Endocr J 2001;48:11-18.
  3. Sasaki N, Kusano E, Takahashi H, et al. Vitamin K2 inhibits glucocorticoid-induced bone loss partly by preventing the reduction of osteoprotegerin (OPG). J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23(1):41-47.
  4. Yonemura K, Fukasawa H, Fujigaki Y, Hishida A. Protective effect of vitamins K2 and D3 on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;43:53-60.
  5. Yonemura K, Kimura M, Miyaji T, Hishida A. Short-term effect of vitamin K administration on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Calcif Tissue Int 2000;66:123-128.
MK4 for People Who’ve had Strokes
  1. Sato Y, Honda Y, Kuno H, Oizumi K. Menatetrenone ameliorates osteopenia in disuse-affected limbs of vitamin D- and K-deficient stroke patients. Bone. Sep 1998;23(3):291-296.
Calcium and Vitamin D Citations
  1. Anderson PH, Sawyer RK, May BK, O’Loughlin PD, Morris HA. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D requirement for maintaining skeletal health utilising a Sprague-Dawley rat model. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2007;103(3-5):592-595.
  2. Fairfield KM, Fletcher RH. Vitamins for Chronic Disease Prevention in Adults: Scientific Review. JAMA. 2002;287(23):3116-3126.
  3. Gallagher JC, Rapuri P, Smith L. Falls are associated with decreased renal function and insufficient calcitriol production by the kidney. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2007;103(3-5):610-613.
  4. Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, et al. Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365(9471):1621-1628.
  5. Jesudason D, Need AG, Horowitz M, O’Loughlin PD, Morris HA, Nordin BEC. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone resorption markers in vitamin D insufficiency. Bone. 2002;31(5):626-630.
  6. Larsen ER, Mosekilde L, Foldspang A. Vitamin D and Calcium Supplementation Prevents Osteoporotic Fractures in Elderly Community Dwelling Residents: A Pragmatic Population-Based 3-Year Intervention Study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2004;19(3):370-378.
  7. Masterjohn C. Vitamin D toxicity redefined: vitamin K and the molecular mechanism. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(5):1026-1034.
Celiac Disease and Osteoporosis
  1. Dewar DH, Ciclitira PJ. Clinical features and diagnosis of celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(4, Supplement 1):S19-S24.
  2. Green PH. The many faces of celiac disease: Clinical presentation of celiac disease in the adult population. Gastroenterology. 2005;128(4, Supplement 1):S74-S78.
  3. Green PH, Jabri B. Coeliac disease. Lancet. 2003;362(9381):383-391.
  4. Hernandez L, Green PH. Extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. Oct 2006;8(5):383-389.
  5. Kemppainen T, Kroger H, Janatuinen E, et al. Osteoporosis in adult patients with celiac disease. Bone. 1999/3 1999;24(3):249-255.
  6. Richard J. Farrell CPK. Diagnosis of celiac sprue. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2001;96(12):3237-3246.
  7. Rodrigo L. Celiac disease. World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7 2006;12(41):6585-6593.
  8. Stenson WF, Newberry R, Lorenz R, Baldus C, Civitelli R. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Need for Routine Screening Among Patients With Osteoporosis. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(4):393-399.

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